Sunday, June 21, 2009

Definitions Better Than Webster's: Part 23- Psychological Warfare & Political Warfare

"The following definition is provided by a former Director of Psychological Operations in the Office of the Secretary of Defense:

'Psychological operations may be defined broadly as the planned use of communications to influence human attitudes and behavior...conducted to create in target groups behavior, emotions, and attitudes that support the attainment of national objectives.'

Psychological operations are merely one part of a larger strategy, known as 'political warfare.' This was defined as follows by the head of the U.S. National Defense University:

'Warfare is often defined as the employment of military means to advance political ends...Another, more subtle, means- political warfare- uses images, ideas, speeches, slogans, propaganda, economic pressures, even advertising techniques to influence the political will of an adversary...'

Still broader is the description of political warfare used by the former National Security Council communications specialist which appears in a text published by the National Defense University Press:

'Political warfare is a general category of activities encompassing political action, coercive diplomacy, and covert political warfare...Political action means a range of activities including certain kinds of multilateral diplomacy, support for foreign political parties or forces, and support for or work with international associations of various kinds. Covert political warfare [includes] operations against enemy alliances, influence operations, and black [clandestine] propaganda...[A] psychological-political component is inherent in every use of the diplomatic, economic, and military instruments of national power...A nation's economic and military strength of necessity creates political weight that can be exploited in a variety of ways to advance the national interest.'

As the military experts note, economic pressures, diplomacy, and the military threat are all part of a larger strategy of control over hostile, neutral, sometimes even friendly nations around the world." -From, "The Entertainment As Propaganda Report By: The Information Project for Africa [via, "Warrior Song" By: Djehuti Wa Kamau

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